it is the inflammation and swelling of epiglottis
Cause- it is most often caused by Haemophilus Influenzae Type B.
Signs/Symptoms-it is characterized by dysphagia,drooling,anxiety ,irritability and significant respiratory distress
Prevention-Extensive use of Hib vaccine since the 1980 has resulted in a significant decrease in the incidence of epiglottis.
Treatment-Therapeutic management focuses on airway maintenance and support.Intravenous antibiotic therapy is necessary.The child will be managed in the Intensive Care unit.
Nursing care-Do not leave the child unattended.Keep the child and parents as calm as possible.Allow the child to assume a position of comfort.Do not place the child in a supine position as airway occlusion may occur.Provide 100% oxygen in the least invasive manner that is most acceptable to the child.Do not under any circumstances attempt to visualize the throat.;reflex laryngospasm may occur,precipitating immediate airway occlusion.
Bacterial meningitis- it is an infection of the meninges,the lining that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
Cause-The leading cause of bacterial meningitis in newborns is group B Streptococus and gram negative enteric bacilli like EColi.In children the leading cause causative agents are Neisseria meningitiditis and Streptococus pneumoniae.
- Sudden onset of symptoms.
- Preceding respiratory illness or sorethroat,
- Presence of fever and chills
- Stiff neck
- Muscle rigidity and seizures.
In developed countries,disease resulting from Haemophilus Influenzae type B,once the most common cause of meningitis in children ,has decreaed dramatically since the introductiion of Hib vaccine.In less developed countries ,infection with H.Influenzae type B stillremains a concern .Most cases of bacterial meningitis occur in the winter and early spring ,but it can occur year around.it is a serious illness and prevention is important .it is transmitted by direct close contact with respiratory droplets from the nose or throat.Control measure should be initiated in environments where risks exists.
it is a medical emergency and requires prompt hospitalization and treatment.Deterioration maybe rapid and occur in less than 24 hours ,leading to long-term neurologic damage and even death.Intravenous antibiotics will be started immediately after the LP and blood cultures have been obtained if bacterial meningitis is suspected.Coticosteroids maybe ordered to help reduce the inflammatory proces
Quickly initiate supportive measures to ensure proper ventillation,reduce the inflammatory response and help prevent injury to the brain.Interventions are aimed to reduce ICPand maintaining cerebral perfusion along with treating fluid volume deficit,controlling seizures and preventing injury that from altered LOC or seizure activity.Initiate appropriate isolation precautions.
- Attention deficit disorder
- Autism spectrum disorder
- Emotional abuse.
Adolescent psychosocial issue
- Body image