1. The difference between thermal, chemical and electrical burns :-
Thermal burns are those burns which are caused as a result of thermal injury like conduction
Chemical burns are those burns which are caused due to chemical spillage for example acid attack
Electrical burns are those burns which are caused due to electric shock etc .
2. The difference in burn severity (superficial, partial thickness, full thickness, 1st degree, 2nd degree, 3rd are :-
- Superficial burn injury
1st degree burn, limited to epidermis; erythema and minimal swelling; treated on OUTpatient basis
- Superficial partial-thickness burns
superficial 2nd degree burns; invovles epidermis and superficial portion of dermis; scalding injuries; blister formation and blanches w/ pressure; sensitive to light touch/pinprick; OUTpatient; heal in 1-3 wks
- Deep partial-thickness burns
Deep 2nd degree burns; invovles epidermis and most of dermis; white or poorly vascularized; may NOT blister; less sensitive; extensive heal time (3-4 wks); may req excision or skin graft
- Full-thickness burns
3rd degree burns; involves epidermis, ALL layers of dermis, extends down to subQ tissue; dry, leathery, insensate, w/o blisters; clothing on fire/skin directly exposed to flame; usually req referral to burn surgeon - need skin graft
- Fourth degree burns
Full-thickness burn to muscle or bone; commonly result of high-voltage electric injury or severe thermal burns; req hospital admission
3. Parkland formula - is the formula by which the amount of fluid to be given to a burn patient is calculated using % of body surface area burned .
Formula = 4ml × % BSA × weight (kg) . Half of the total calculated fluid volume is given over 8 hours and rest half in 16 hours .
% of BSA = 45%
Weight of the patient is 165 lbs = 165×0.45 kg = 74.2kg
Using parkland formula = 4ml× 45× 74.2 = 13365 ml of fluid has to be given to this patient with 45%of burn . First half 6682.5 ml will be given over 8 hours and rest in 16 hours .
5. Rule of nine is the method used to calculate the percentage of body surface area.
Head ( anterior ) = 9 %
Head (posterior ) = 9%
Chest and abdomen = 18%
Upper back and lower back =18%
Right hand ( anterior) = 4.5%
Right hand (posterior ) = 4.5%
Left hand (anterior ) = 4.5%
Left hand ( posterior ) = 4.5%
Perineal area = 1%
Right leg ( anterior )= 9%
Right leg ( posterior ) = 9%
Left leg ( anterior ) = 9%
Left leg ( posterior ) 9%
Total = 100%