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NUR 360 Tissue – Burn Pre-WorkDescribe the difference between thermal, chemical and electrical burns.Describe the difference...

Question:

NUR 360 Tissue – Burn Pre-WorkDescribe the difference between thermal, chemical and electrical burns.Describe the difference in burn severity (superficial, partial thickness, full thickness, 1st degree, 2nd degree, 3rd degree).What is the parkland formula?How much fluid should be given to a burn patient, using the Parkland formula, who has 45% of their body burned, weighs 165 lbs? Use 4cc/kg.Describe the rule of 9’s.If a burn patient is noted to have a hoarse voice, and soot noted around their mouth and nose, what procedure can the nurse anticipate taking place.What electrolytes are of most concern in a burn patient? Why?A patient with circumferential burns to their chest may require an escharotomy. What is an escharotomy and why would this procedure be done?


Answers

1. The difference between thermal, chemical and electrical burns :-

Thermal burns are those burns which are caused as a result of thermal injury like conduction

Chemical burns are those burns which are caused due to chemical spillage for example acid attack

Electrical burns are those burns which are caused due to electric shock etc .

2. The difference in burn severity (superficial, partial thickness, full thickness, 1st degree, 2nd degree, 3rd are :-

- Superficial burn injury

1st degree burn, limited to epidermis; erythema and minimal swelling; treated on OUTpatient basis

- Superficial partial-thickness burns

superficial 2nd degree burns; invovles epidermis and superficial portion of dermis; scalding injuries; blister formation and blanches w/ pressure; sensitive to light touch/pinprick; OUTpatient; heal in 1-3 wks

- Deep partial-thickness burns

Deep 2nd degree burns; invovles epidermis and most of dermis; white or poorly vascularized; may NOT blister; less sensitive; extensive heal time (3-4 wks); may req excision or skin graft

- Full-thickness burns

3rd degree burns; involves epidermis, ALL layers of dermis, extends down to subQ tissue; dry, leathery, insensate, w/o blisters; clothing on fire/skin directly exposed to flame; usually req referral to burn surgeon - need skin graft

- Fourth degree burns

Full-thickness burn to muscle or bone; commonly result of high-voltage electric injury or severe thermal burns; req hospital admission

3. Parkland formula - is the formula by which the amount of fluid to be given to a burn patient is calculated using % of body surface area burned .

Formula = 4ml × % BSA × weight (kg) . Half of the total calculated fluid volume is given over 8 hours and rest half in 16 hours .

4.

% of BSA = 45%

Weight of the patient is 165 lbs = 165×0.45 kg = 74.2kg

Using parkland formula = 4ml× 45× 74.2 = 13365 ml of fluid has to be given to this patient with 45%of burn . First half 6682.5 ml will be given over 8 hours and rest in 16 hours .

5. Rule of nine is the method used to calculate the percentage of body surface area.

Head ( anterior ) = 9 %

Head (posterior ) = 9%

Chest and abdomen = 18%

Upper back and lower back =18%

Right hand ( anterior) = 4.5%

Right hand (posterior ) = 4.5%

Left hand (anterior ) = 4.5%

Left hand ( posterior ) = 4.5%

Perineal area = 1%

Right leg ( anterior )= 9%

Right leg ( posterior ) = 9%

Left leg ( anterior ) = 9%

Left leg ( posterior ) 9%

Total = 100%

.

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