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Basically, I need help identifying and differenciating the psychological process(es) between the 8 stages of Ericksons...

Question:

After working through all the content in this module, choose one of the following psychologists and summarize the primary sta

Basically, I need help identifying and differenciating the psychological process(es) between the 8 stages of Ericksons Psychosocial Theory.

After working through all the content in this module, choose one of the following psychologists and summarize the primary stages in the models of development proposed. Be sure to indicate what psychological process or processes is being modeled in its development and how this process is different at each stage 1 Freud 2. Erikson

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Answer.

Erik Erikson is known for his critic of Freudian psychoanalytic model of development and he proposed that development does not merely involve maturation of sexuality but that development takes place within a cultural and historical context. He posited psychosocial model of development wherein individuals are considered to develop not only physically and  psychologically, but also socially, through eight development stages. At each stage, individuals are confronted by two conflicting ideas or crises which must be resolved successfully in order for a person to become a confident contributing member of society. Failure to master these crises leads to feelings of inadequacy and these need to be resolved according to the values and survival strategies that are specific to one’s own culture.

Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development include:

trust vs. mistrust: During this stage which occurs in infancy, babies are completely dependent on their caregivers for all their needs.

Parents and other caregivers  who are able to meet the infants need for food, security and safety are able to build the psychological experience of trust and in this way, the infant learns to feel secure in the world.

autonomy vs. shame/doubt: at this stage, as toddlers develop certain motor skills, they develop a sense of mastery over several self help skills such feeding themselves, defecating on their own, crawling, etc. this gives them a sense of independence if they are able to do it successfully on their own without overattention from caregivers. However, a rigid or strictly controlled environment can make them feel ashamed or doubt their own abilities.

initiative vs. guilt:

When preschool children master a sense of ambition and responsibilities in their interactions with others with encouragement and support from parents to explore, they will develop self-confidence.

However, Those who are unsuccessful at this stage due to over-controlling parents, they may develop feelings of guilt.

Industry vs. Inferiority

During the elementary school stage (6–12 years), children begin to accomplish in schoolwork, sports, recreational activities, etc. as they begin to compare themselves with their peers and either develop a sense of pride inferiority if they  feel that they don’t measure up to the peers. The latter can set off an inferiority complex into adolescence and adulthood.

Identity vs. Role Confusion

In adolescence (ages 12–18), children strat developing a sense of self.

Struggle with questions such as “Who am I?” and “What do I want to do with my life?” become important and they begin to explore various roles and ideas and come closer towards reaching their “adult” selves. Identity crisis is resolved when they acquire a fairly strong sense of identity and are able to remain true to their beliefs and values in the face of adveristies. however, a pressure  to conform to parents’ perspectives bout their own lives can lead to a weak sense of self and role confusion.

Intimacy vs. Isolation

During young adulthood, individuals begin to explore the opportunities  available to them in career and love choices and they may make crucial life choices during their 20s. If they have trouble developing and maintaining successful relationships with others and they may experience feelings of loneliness and emotional isolation.

Generativity vs.

Stagnation

During middle adulthood, individuals are faced with the task of Generativity which involves assessing one’s accomplishments and legacy or contributions to the community, one’s children. etc. At this stage, life priorities begin to change from work to concentrating on family and social relationships. Those who do not master this task may experience stagnation and feel that they have little interpersonal connection with others and little interest in productivity.

Integrity vs. Despair

From the mid-60s to the end of life, people in late adulthood can feel either a sense of satisfaction or a sense of failure when they look back at the lives that they had lived.

Integrity is experienced when  People can take pride in their accomplishments.  However, people who feel a deep sense of regret about unaccomplished goals, failures,etc end up with feelings of despair and sadness.

Thus, Erikson worked out development of individuals through emotional and psychological complexes which are based on age related tasks and socio-cultural values and  expectations and successful and unsuccessful experiences both lead to different outcomes while resolving the different crises.

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