# B.2 The multiplicity of a monatomic ideal gas is given by 2 = f(N)VN U3N/2, where...

###### Question: B.2 The multiplicity of a monatomic ideal gas is given by 2 = f(N)VN U3N/2, where V is the volume occupied by the gas, U its internal energy, N the number of particles in the gas and f(N) a complicated function of N.  (i) Show that the entropy S of this system is given by 3 S = Nkg In V + ŽNkg In U + g(N), where g(N) is some function of N. (ii) Define the temperature T of a thermodynamic system, in terms of its entropy. Use the result in part (i) to calculate the temperature of a monatomic ideal gas, as a function of its internal energy U. Then invert this relation to obtain an expression for U. Compare the result with the prediction of U from the equipartition theorem. (iii) State the thermodynamic identity. Explain all the terms you introduce. Use the thermodynamic identity to show that  P=T as av UN  where P is the pressure of the gas, and the subscripts indicate that U and N are constant. Then use this result and that of part (i) to derive the ideal-gas law. (iv) Consider the gas confined in a container of volume V. What is the probability of finding all N atoms in the leftmost 99% of the container if (a) N = 100; (b) N = 10,000; (c) N = 1023? 

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