1 answer

Analyze how calcium and phosphate are hormonally regulated and describe the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, ev...

Question:

Analyze how calcium and phosphate are hormonally regulated and describe the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, evaluation and treatments for hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia.


Answers

The calcium and phosphorus are regulated by the following hormones namely

Parathyroid hormone regulates by increasing the calcium levels in the blood by pushing it from bones

Cacitonin helps to remove excess calcium through kidney and its resorption in the bone

Vitamin D absorbs the calcium from the small intestine

Fibroblast growth factor 23

The organs like gastrointestinal, bone,kidneys, parathyroid glands are involved.

Hypercalcemia Hypocalcemia
Pathophysiology due to endocrine hormone alteration the calcium is released excess from the bones into blood vessels causing other symptoms due to endocrine and other organ disorders the absorption of calcium is inhibited and causing symptoms related to it
Clinical manifestation

GIT:abdominal pain,nausea, constipation, anorexia, polydipsia,vomiting

Rensl:increase urine

CNS;confusion,tired

CVS:Palpitations, arrhythmia

Musculoskeletal:pain,weakness

Other:weight loss

Musculoskeletal Muscle cramps,pain,twitching,spasm,brittle bones

CNS:Paresthesia,fatigue,depression ,hallucinations

Evaluation
  • Physical examination
  • History collection
  • Serum calcium levels
  • Physical examination
  • History collection
  • Serum calcium levels
Treatment

Medication

  • Cacitonin,Bisphosphonates,prednisone
  • Intravenous infusion
  • Diuretics

Surgery

Removal of parathyroid partial or total

  • Calcium supplements
  • Calcium carbonate
  • Calcium citrate
.

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