1 answer

1. Explain the term ‘heart attack’ (a myocardial infarction)? 2. Explain why Naomi has shortness of...

Question:

1. Explain the term ‘heart attack’ (a myocardial infarction)?
2. Explain why Naomi has shortness of breath?     

An Elderly Woman Who Suddenly Develops Severe Shortness of Breath A Near Death Experience

Compartmentalization of body water is achieved by striking a balance between intravascular hydrostatic pressure and oncotic pressure. The difference between these two forces is a calculation known as the net filtration pressure (NFP). Changes in either hydrostatic or oncotic pressure can lead to disastrous shifts in body water.

Naomi is a 78-year-old former school teacher who lives with her husband in a retirement center. Never a smoker and cautious with her diet, she has always considered herself to be in good health, at least for her age. That is until recently.

For the past few months, Naomi has gotten short of breath just walking to get the mail plus she’s had problems with ankle swelling. But, things got much worse a week ago. One night she jolted awake at 2:00 AM, gasping for breath and gurgling as if she were drowning. She was convinced she was dying. In fact, she was. Naomi’s husband called 911 and the ambulance attendants administered oxygen on the way to the hospital. Naomi’s condition had improved a little by the time she arrived in the ER, but she was still short of breath with audible gurgling as she struggled to breathe. Her ankles were swollen, and if one pressed a finger against her skin, a divot would remain. Naomi was in heart failure. Naomi was not experiencing a ‘heart attack’, a myocardial infarction, which is anoxic (absence of oxygen) death of a portion of the myocardium due to sudden and complete occlusion of a coronary artery. Rather the muscle of her entire left ventricle was weak and only feebly beating. Naomi does have atherosclerosis in her coronary arteries, which causes serious reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle, but there was no complete blockage. The reduced coronary blood flow meant her myocardium was not being adequately oxygenated and therefore could only work at about half of its strength.
  

  
• A weak left ventricle means only about 50% of the blood in the ventricle is pumped out with each contraction cycle (normally it’s 70% or more). • Since the blood is slowed down going through the left ventricular chamber, there is backup of blood in the left atrium and the pulmonary vasculature. (It’s like a traffic jam behind an accident.) • The backup of blood creates an increase in the hydrostatic pressure within the pulmonary capillaries, and eventually the entire venous system.
  



Answers

Answer: Myocardial infarction is also known as heart attack. It is a condition which occurs when the flow of the blood to the heart gets reduced or stops which directly causes damage to cardiac muscle. The sign and symptoms includes:

  • Pain in jaw
  • Pain in left ram
  • Discomfort
  • Uneasiness.
  • Fatigue
  • Short of breath.
.

Similar Solved Questions

1 answer
1. According to Lawrence Kohlberg, how should we evaluate people's moral reasoning? a. Ask people what...
1. According to Lawrence Kohlberg, how should we evaluate people's moral reasoning? a. Ask people what is the right thing to do in certain situations. b. Consider the reasons people give for the moral decisions they make. c. See whether people's actual behavior matches what they say is right...
1 answer
Hello! Can you help me identify noteworthy external environmental factors for ExxonMobil?
Hello! Can you help me identify noteworthy external environmental factors for ExxonMobil?...
1 answer
E14.12 (LO 3) Cepeda Corporation has the following cost records for June 2020. Prepare a cost...
E14.12 (LO 3) Cepeda Corporation has the following cost records for June 2020. Prepare a cost of goods manufactured schedule and a partial income statement. > Excel Indirect factory labor Direct materials used Work in process, 6/1/20 Work in process, 6/30/20 Finished goods, 6/1/20 Finished goods,...
1 answer
What is the derivative of #(ln (x^(4/7))#?
What is the derivative of #(ln (x^(4/7))#?...
1 answer
#7 7 Prove or disprove: If H is a normal subgroup of G such that H...
#7 7 Prove or disprove: If H is a normal subgroup of G such that H and G/H are abelian, then G is abelian. If G is cyclic, prove that G/H must also be cyclic. 8....
1 answer
Consider the two protons highlighted in the following compound: Do you expect these protons to be...
Consider the two protons highlighted in the following compound: Do you expect these protons to be equivalent or is one proton more acidic than the other? Explain your choice. (Hint: Think carefully about the geometry at the central carbon atom.) Because fluorine is more electronegative, shouldn'...
1 answer
The absolute value of 3x-1 is greater than or equal to 8, please solve step by step
the absolute value of 3x-1 is greater than or equal to 8, please solve step by step....
1 answer
Suppose that the distribution of IQ scores (X) of a group of school children follows the...
Suppose that the distribution of IQ scores (X) of a group of school children follows the normal distribution of with an unknown mean and an standard deviation z. A random sample of n=16 children from this population resulted in sample mean x=105 and sample standard deviation S=16. The Kolmogrov-Rao-...
1 answer
FIUTIU WUin. Uliaper Homework Score: 0.33 of 1 pt %E1-22A (similar to) 2 of 7 (2...
FIUTIU WUin. Uliaper Homework Score: 0.33 of 1 pt %E1-22A (similar to) 2 of 7 (2 complete HW Score Willy Company's comparative balance sheet at January 31, 2019, and 2018, reports the following in millions) (Click the loon to view the comparative balance sheet) The following are three situations...
1 answer
2. Consider HC2H30, and NaC2H302. Calculate the molar mass of HC2H302. Calculate the molar mass of...
2. Consider HC2H30, and NaC2H302. Calculate the molar mass of HC2H302. Calculate the molar mass of NaC2H302. (2 pts) 3. Calculate the moles HC2H302 in 2.102 g HC2H2O2. Calculate the moles NaCzH302 in 2.771 g NaC2H302 (2 pts)...
1 answer
Assuming a statement of cash flows is prepared, indicate the reporting of the transactions and events...
Assuming a statement of cash flows is prepared, indicate the reporting of the transactions and events listed below by major categories on the statement. Use the following code letters to indicate the appropriate category under which the item would appear on the statement of cash flows. Number your a...
1 answer
Alpha Enterprises, Inc. is considering a project that has the following cash flows: Year: Cash Flow;...
Alpha Enterprises, Inc. is considering a project that has the following cash flows: Year: Cash Flow; 0: -$1,000 1: 500 2: 300 3: 900 4: 400 The company’s WACC is 10%. What is the project’s ordinary payback? Enter your answer rounded to two decimal places....